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ICOM CC Triennial preprints

Articles published at the ICOM-CC Preprints of the 15th Triennial Meeting, New Delhi, 22-26 September 2008, Vol. I

Evolutions de la base de données EROS dédiée à la conservation-restauration, pp. 

Genevieve Aitken*, Ruven Pillay, Christian Lahanier, Denis Pitzalis,  Philippe Colantoni, Nathalie Balcar, Maria Radin

Abstract: Developed as early as 1999 using Open Source software, the EROS database manages information related to artworks that have been studied and restored at the Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF. With the development of Web 2, some new functionalities have been integrated: new fields, a module for preventive conservation, a database ‘analysis’ as well as a module for ‘samples’ for managing samples taken from artworks. The implementation of a new search engine enables retrieval of an artwork while looking in one or more fields of several databases (advanced search mode) or in free text in all the fields of all databases (simple search). In addition, the development of new ‘viewers’ operating on 16 bit images enables display and superimposition of multispectral images for examining their difference by opacity variation. These new tools are used for research and conservation of artworks.

Establishing deterrents to help reduce forgery practices and secure the authenticity of Philippine paintings (a study of the works of an early 20th century Philippine national artist), pp.

Larry C. Cruz*, Janice May E. Salvador, Athena Evalour S. Paz, Julie Mae B. Dado, Maricor N. Soriano

Abstract: This paper investigates paintings from a university museum collection which are works of an early 20th century painter and the Philippine’s first National Artist, Fernando C Amorsolo. Using a low-cost digital archiving setup that can derive both 3D texture and spectral reflectance measurements and visual examination to identify common characteristics and patterns, we demonstrate how statistical and image analysis can provide qualitative and quantitative measures in art examination that can help prevent the proliferation of forgeries among oil paintings on canvas and canvas boards.

Color management systems for digital optical microscopy, pp. 

Alexandre Cruz Leão*, Luiz Antonio Cruz Souza, Arnaldo de Albuquerque Araújo

Abstract: The documentation of fine art objects using optical microscopy and digital technology to capture images with color consistency is the main purpose of this research. White balance is usually the procedure used to adjust image capture devices, in terms of better representation of colors. In addition to that, the implementation of a color management system may bring an enhancement of the results. In this work we used a reference target, color profiler and image editor software, and other tools. The colors of the target were captured separately and then regrouped in the same order of the original target. The color profile was created using that regrouped target. Using the color profile embedded in the captured images, it was possible to verify the consistency of colors between the original image and the captured one, thus proving the efficiency of the process.

Mobile wireless multimedia for visitors and conservation in museums, pp.

Ruven Pillay*, Genevieve Aitken, Denis Pitzalis, Christian Lahanier, Jean-Louis Coudrot, Didier Nicholson

Abstract: In this paper, we describe a system for wireless portable multimedia devices allowing visitors to access large quantities of interactive location-aware educational and scientific multimedia content from within a museum environment. The system allows users to move freely around the museum spaces and consult detailed multimedia content, such as video, audio, text and high resolution scientific imagery, on various works of art. The system is based on WiFi networking and the project has sought to address various technical issues such as network scalability, signal robustness, video stream compression and multicasting. A prototype of the system has been installed at the Musée Châtillonais in Châtillon-sur-Seine in France giving access to images, video and audio content relating to the famous Vase de Vix and a range of other objects in the collection. It is hoped the successful deployment of the prototype will lead to the system being adopted in other museums, including the Louvre Museum.

Articles published at the ICOM-CC Preprints of the 14th Triennial Meeting, The Hague, 12-16 September 2005, Vol. I, James&James

EROS: an open source database for museum conservation - restoration, pp. 15-23.

Geneviève Aitken*, Christian Lahanier, Ruven Pillay and Denis Pitzalis; Ilenia Cassan; Elena Kuzmina, Junko Koga; Rui Ferreira da Silva, Curvelo Alexandra, Escobar Nazaré and Matos Emília; Hsien-Min Hsiao

Abstract: The EROS database was developed internally to manage all manner of digital documentation. It was designed to handle museum collection analytical data from the laboratory as well as from museum conservation/restoration workshops. The information is focused on scientific and technical data. This includes indexing vocabularies, study reports, restoration reports, digital data from quantitative analysis, spectra, graphs, chemical formulae, ultraviolet, infrared, raking light photography and scanning electron microscopy images. The database also includes administrative information such as inventory tracking and the restoration history of the works of art as well as periodic surveys of the collection. New features include automatic content recognition of objects, geographical location display, panoramic viewing, multi-spectral image and three-dimensional model display.

Page-image recipe databases, a new approach for accessing art technological manuscripts and rare printed sources: the Winsor & Newton archive prototype, pp. 24-29

Mark Clarke and Leslie Carlyle

Abstract: This paper describes a new database approach for making the contents of a documentary source widely accessible without the need for exhaustive transcription or complex editing. The electronic availability of historic recipes greatly facilitates correlation between the recipes and analytical results from historic art works, thus serving conservators and conservation scientists, as well as art historians and curators. The database incorporates full page images from the primary source, alongside an index and summary of individual page contents. This removes the problems of full-text entry, and allows the rapid generation of indices. As the original page is always visible to the user, subsequent researchers are not restricted to interpretations within the database entries. A fully functional pilot database is being built for the 19th century archive of Winsor & Newton, which contains recipes and processes for making oil painter's materials.

Two-dimensional multi-spectral digitization and three-dimensional modelling of easel paintings, pp. 30-42

Christian Lahanier*, Geneviève Aitken and Ruven Pillay; Angelo Beraldin, François Blais, Louis Borgeat, Luc Cournyer, Michel Picard, Marc Rioux and John Taylor; Bernd Breuckmann; Philippe Colantoni; Christophe de Deyne

Abstract: This paper presents the usefulness and utility of three complementary digitization techniques for the dynamic rendering of colour, roughness and shape of easel paintings. Two-dimensional multi-spectral digitization and three-dimensional (3D) modeling of paintings are used for colour accuracy rendering and measurement, colour characterization, pigment identification, for high-definition visualization of the painting, and for the measurement of the shape of the support and the paint-layer roughness. The experimentation was performed on several paintings. The results show the advantages of each technique. Several viewers were developed to handle multi-spectral images and 3D models.

Three-dimensional modelling of archaeological objects for conservation, visualization, colour and shape characterization: comparison of details, pp 43-51

Christian Lahanier* and Denis Pitzalis, Olivier Feihl, Micheline Jeanlin, Francis Schmitt

Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of museological objects requires new digital technologies. Several systems have been tested for different kinds of application depending on the type of museum collection. Based on different optical techniques, they are used here for specific applications such as the visualization and the measurement of the decoration made on ancient gold objects, the classification by image content recognition based on colour and shape, and the measurement of the roughness of the surface of objects by profiling techniques to evaluate and register their state of conservation. These experiments were applied to three categories of object: Greek vases, white clay Gallo-Roman figurines produced mostly in the centre of France, and two Gorythes made of gold which were discovered at different places and which had to be to be compared.

Using an ontology for interoperability and browsing of museum, library and archive information, pp. 52-57

Patrick Le Boeuf *, Patrick Sinclair, Kirk Martinez and Paul Lewis, Geneviève Aitken and Christian Lahanier

Abstract: Ontologies play an important part in the development of the future 'semantic web'; the CIDOC conceptual reference model (CRM) is an ontology aimed at the cultural heritage domain. This paper describes a Concept Browser, developed for the EU/IST-funded SCULPTEUR project (semantic and content-based multimedia exploitation for European benefit environment (programme IST-2001-no. 35372); May 2002 to May 2005), which is able to access different museum information systems through a common ontology, the CRM. The development of this Concept Browser has required mappings from the legacy museum database systems to the CRM. The crucial process of creating the mappings is described, using the C2RMF catalogue (EROS) and library databases as a case study.

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