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Past Triennial Sessions - Abstracts

 Abstracts of the papers and posters published within the ‘Objects from Indigenous and World Cultures' section of the ICOM-CC Preprints of the 18th Triennial Meeting, Copenhagen (Denamark), 4-8 September 2017, ed. J. Bridgland. Paris: International Council of Museums, 2017.
All articles are accessible on the ICOM-CC Publications Online webpage.
*Author for correspondence.

Carole Dignard*, Season Tse, Sonia Kata, Jennifer Poulin, A comparison of ethanol and methanol vapour treatments for reshaping birch bark.

ABSTRACT : Methanol and ethanol vapours were compared for plasticizing warped birch bark in flattening treatments. Five sets of curved bark samples were tested using different solvent exposure times, flattening times, loads, and flattening mold shapes. Bark weights and curvatures were measured to monitor solvent absorption and success of flattening, including extent of rebound (‘plastic memory’). Both solvents were effective at reshaping, with vapour exposure time being an important factor. Successful treatments occurred after a week of exposure to methanol vapours corresponding to an average weight gain of 14.5%, and within three weeks of exposure to ethanol vapours corresponding to a 17.2% weight gain. Plastic memory always occurred after removing restraints. Longer flattening times improved flattening, but not heavier loads. Curved molds had benefits and disadvantages compared to flat boards. By adjusting treatment parameters, the safer solvent ethanol could be relatively as effective as methanol.

Nyssa Mildwaters, Capturing motion in Māori cloaks: Logistics, decision making and perceptions.

ABSTRACT : Though relatively standardised, the display of Māori cloaks can be a complex undertaking, with both the inherent fragility and the cultural significance of the cloaks presenting challenges. This paper discusses a project by the Otago Museum to capture how 19 Māori cloaks (kākahu) appear in wear, with the intention of showing visitors the aesthetic beauty of the garments as well as the motion that comes from the cloaks as they would originally have been worn. It focuses on the decision making, logistics and perceptions involved in capturing the audiovisual footage of Māori kākahu in motion that formed the entrance to Otago Museum’s Hākui: Women of Kāi Tahu exhibition. Showcasing 19 selected kākahu in motion enabled staff and public to connect with living Māori culture in ways not traditionally undertaken in a standard museum setting.

Stefania Pandozy*, Catherine Rivière, Alice Rivalta, Mathilde de Bonis, Conserving world cultures at the Ethnological Materials Conservation Laboratory of the Vatican Museums.

ABSTRACT : The Ethnological Materials Conservation Laboratory of the Vatican Museums has been responsible for the care of the collections of the Vatican Ethnological Museum (VEM) since 1997. The collections consist of 80,000 items from all over the world, including Australia, Oceania, Asia, Africa and the Americas. Given the constant challenges posed by the diversity and complexity of these collections, the VEM’s conservators have been working on a platform to share knowledge and approaches with other museums and laboratories. Besides new approaches to conservation treatments and the material fabric of many of the unique objects, these exchanges have also allowed more about the impacts of conservation to be understood. Moreover, the processes have contributed to promoting relevant cultural activities and the direct involvement of representatives (conservators, curators, scientists, scholars, artists, artisans, etc.) from the geocultural areas relating to the objects in the collections.

Catherine Smith*, Bronwyn J. Lowe, Rachel A. Paterson, Nikola Fraser, Identification of New Zealand plants in artefacts: Insights from polarised light microscopy.

ABSTRACT : Plant materials identification in textile artefacts is made problematic by the alteration of diagnostic features created by the processing required to make them, ageing, the paucity of reference material, and the lack of appropriate identification methods that fulfil the ethical requirements of the museum sector. New methods have been developed with a high level of accuracy, requiring small sample sizes, to enable the identification of New Zealand textile plants using polarised light microscopy. This paper discusses the reality of applying this method to identification of the plants in two rare kahu rāranga puputu (Māori cloaks woven with leaf strip). Positive identification relied upon the sound preparation of specimens, practitioner experience with the fibres under study, and the use of the polarising light microscope.

Frances Lennard*, Misa Tamura, Mark Nesbitt, Re-evaluating student treatments of barkcloth artefacts from the Economic Botany Collection, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

ABSTRACT : Since 1995 textile conservation students have treated 17 pieces of barkcloth from the Economic Botany Collection, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. A re-examination of eight treated objects has enabled comparison of the effectiveness of interventive treatments. Humidification has been applied by varied techniques, all found to give consistent, lasting results. Structural support for tears again used varied materials: nylon net in the 1990s, Reemay, Japanese paper and reworked fibres; all have proved stable, although in some cases acrylic paint had stiffened the material. The objects’ role as part of a study collection means that easy access is required; mounts were therefore designed to allow examination of objects with minimal handling, e.g. through the use of trays. Documentation was not always adequate for this re-evaluation exercise, lacking detail on adhesive preparation or colouring. Overall, past conservation was found to have lasted well, with the proviso that some storage solutions have had to be revisited in the light of use. Close collaboration between curators and conservators has been crucial to this success.

Ana Carolina Delgado Vieira*, Marília Xavier Cury, Renata F. Peters, Saving the present in Brazil: Perspectives from collaborations with indigenous museums.

ABSTRACT : This paper explores some of the challenges and benefits involved in the collaboration between the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology of the University of São Paulo, the India Vanuire Historical and Pedagogical Museum, and the Kaingang people of Vanuire, as well as some of the outcomes of these partnerships, such as the creation of the Kaingang Wowkriwig Museum. These experiences showed that working in collaboration with indigenous groups can be mutually beneficial and rewarding. The benefits include opportunities to empower the Kaingang to create and manage their own museums, and to exchange more effective preservation strategies, information about manufacturing technologies, as well as the original use and significance of objects. Moreover, the significance of objects whose value had diminished was revived by the new perspectives brought about by these inclusive approaches. The paper concludes that many other museums can act as agents of these processes but a prerequisite is a reconsideration of their relationships with indigenous groups and how the past can be redressed.

Nancy Odegaard*, Marilen Pool, Betsy Burr, Nicole Peters, Skyler Jenkins, Gina Watkinson, The conservation of basketry: A review and reflection based on survey and treatment of a large collection.

ABSTRACT : The Woven Wonders basketry project at the Arizona State Museum has included a process of ongoing review and evaluation of conservation procedures that has stimulated the development and use of new techniques, materials, and approaches to the conservation of basketry. The results of concurrent research initiatives with survey methodology, rehousing, and storage strategies influenced innovative conservation protocols. The approaches for addressing the stabilization needs for 5,000 ethnology and 30,000 archaeology perishable objects were designed to expand the knowledge of and provide needed treatment for the collections as a whole. Addressing the collection holistically provided a means to improve treatment efficiency, both in terms of minimum intervention and treatment time.

Amy Tjiong*, Judith Levinson, Samantha Alderson, Gabrielle Tieu, Jessica Pace, Lesley Day, Tissue issues: Reconsidering winter gut.

ABSTRACT : The production methods and properties of “winter gut”, an under-examined traditional material used by indigenous arctic peoples, were investigated in connection with the conservation treatment of a group of parkas from the renowned Siberian collection at the American Museum of Natural History. The interdisciplinary study included research, experiments in material processing and replication, and histological analysis. Outreach and collaboration with source communities regarding the technology and cultural significance of the parkas and gut skin were a vital part of the work. The methods and materials used to clean and stabilize the parkas were informed and guided by the results of these investigations.

T. Rose Holdcraft*, Rika Smith McNally, Uncovering, discovering and deinstalling a rare Solomon Islands canoe from a 118-year museum public display.

ABSTRACT : A large-scale renovation of a double-height exhibition hall at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University in late 2016 offered a unique opportunity to study the materials and fabrication methods of a 24-foot-long wooden canoe from the southeast Solomon Islands, as well as to provide the circumstances to conserve the object before removal to storage. The mono-hull wood plank canoe was donated to the museum by the curator and director of Harvard’s Museum of Comparative Zoology, Professor Alexander Agassiz, in 1898 along with over 100 other Pacific Islands cultural objects. During Agassiz’ scientific researches into coral reef formation in the Pacific he acquired the canoe and had it shipped to the museum. The fourth-floor gallery opened to the public in the summer of 1898, soon after the canoe was installed, resulting in a 118-year display period. The canoe, suspended 30 feet over an open atrium by two metal rods attached to the ceiling, allowed visitors to see the entire inlaid shell decoration on the hull. The museum’s conservators, while aware that the exhibition technique was not best practice for preservation, had no means in prior decades to safely access the boat for full condition examination. Collaborations ensued with the collections manager, environmental health and safety officers, external art handlers and contracted conservators to develop a plan for the canoe’s conservation with a scaffold system on the lower floor reaching upward to just below the hull of the boat. Contract conservators carried out documentation, cleaning, and stabilization over an 8-day period. The canoe’s materials and techniques became more evident subsequent to cleaning of the 1 to 2 cm layers of dirt and debris from its lengthy open-air display. Examination provided understanding of the plank carving and cordage joinery, of the nut putty caulk material, and of carved elements including the interior seat extensions. The canoe features motifs of frigate birds, bonito fish, a dog with decorative necklace, and fiber pendants at the upper part of the bow and stern extensions. Fish-related representations occur through use of black and white paint, with cut iridescent nautilus mother-of-pearl and cone shell discs. Review of literature from the early 1900s and recent communications with historians, professors, and anthropologists knowledgeable about the cultural practices of plank boat construction in the Solomon Islands contributed important understanding of this canoe. Conservation treatment prior to the boat’s removal from its suspended metal hoops proved to be critical to reducing losses. Professional art handlers used the scaffold to assist in the boat’s deinstallation. It was crated and taken out a fourth-floor window via a crane and lowered to a flat-bed truck for safe transport to the museum’s storage facility. Photographic documentation, social media and in-house gallery conversations informed students and visitors about this rare late-19th-century southeast Solomon Islands canoe.

Birgit Kantzenbach*, Leonie Gärtner, Linking Dahlem with the Humboldt Forum.

ABSTRACT : Until 1906 the Ethnologisches Museum in Berlin was located in the city center. During the Second World War, the museum’s building was badly damaged and eventually demolished in 1961. In 1970 the museum reopened in a new facility in Dahlem, located on the western outskirts of Berlin with 10.000 m2 of exhibiting space and 7.700 m2 for storing approximately 500,000 objects. With the reunification of Germany in 1990, the plan for reconstructing the Hohenzollern palace in the city center was conceived with a planned opening date of 2019 as the “Humboldt Forum.” As one of the main users, the Ethnologisches Museum is now planning to move its exhibitions back to the city center. Six boats from the pacific, measuring up to 10 meters in height and 15 meters in length, are the first of approximately 10,000 objects that will be housed in the palace. Since 2009 conservation planning has been underway to tackle the challenges of preserving, moving and reinstalling the boats. Because of their size, the boats will have to be brought into the building through a 6-meter-high opening in the walls, which will be permanently closed afterwards. The size of the opening was limited by architectural constraints and therefore the boats had to be made to fit. Defining the proper points where the boats could be taken apart had to take into account several considerations, such as original joints and the condition of the organic materials. Regulations governing national tender for a National Institution are complex and required a detailed schedule of services in order to find conservators in Germany with the necessary experience to dismantle and treat the boats. Before four different conservation teams were able to begin their work, the entire exhibition hall had to be emptied of more than 1,000 objects including the exhibition architecture. Several temporary dust-protection walls had to be erected in different locations while extensive building work was carried out to change the exhibition space into a conservation workshop. All planning regarding conservation and art shipping also had to take into account that the objects are contaminated with biocides. This means working under heightened personal protection with the creation of (mobile) black/white zones. The logistics of coordinating different conservation teams, space, money, art shipping and anoxic treatment under the limited time remaining until the boats are loaded onto tractor-trailers to be driven to the Humboldt Forum requires the full attention of two conservators on staff. Once the move is complete, it will be interesting to see how caring for the objects on a building site will function. Will all conservation requirements (climate, safety, cleanliness) be met and, if not, how can this be dealt with? After these first six objects have arrived in the new Humboldt Forum, the conservation department will be challenged to “move” the rest of the 10,000 objects to the city center, which will complete the materialization of the link between Dahlem and the Humboldt Forum.

Kusuma Rah Utama*, Pasha Praditha, The use, meaning, and preservation method of batik textiles in Indonesia.

ABSTRACT : This poster describes how conservation contributes to preserving the tradition of batik textiles in Indonesia by sharing technical and symbolic knowledge with contemporary generations of Indonesians. Batik is ‘wax writing’, a way of decorating cloth by covering selected parts of it with a coat of wax before it is dyed. The wax-covered areas of fabric will not receive the dye, and keep their original color. When the wax is removed, the contrast between the dyed and undyed areas forms a pattern. Indonesian textiles are closely related to the people’s heritage and traditions and have a long history. Textiles play an important role in many cultural customs in central Java, especially Surakarta (Solo), and all costumes and ornaments have a precise meaning and role in ritual. Living traditions such as batik have been transmitted through generations mostly by oral history. Unfortunately, lack of knowledge about cultural customs is leading to a gradual loss of this tradition, as people tend to prefer less complex rituals. The poster describes methods undertaken at the Yogyakarta Batik Museum in 2016 to preserve the collections and their meanings. The collections were in poor condition due to aging, humidity, pollution, improper storage, and excessive light exposure (to direct sunlight and artificial lighting). Most of the batiks had become extremely acidic, which made them brittle. After assessing the collections, the lack of cultural knowledge about batik and the resulting neglect by the younger generation were identified as major conservation issues. It was decided to complete the conservation treatment by introducing batik textile processes to the Indonesian public in order to revive the practice and explain its role in activities and ceremonies and its continued importance in Indonesian culture. Historic batik experts are rare; very few people know about the motifs’ history, details, and mbatik (how to paint batik), especially ancient batik motifs. A course was organized for twelve museum workers, conservators, designers, and culture enthusiasts. For two weeks, they studied and reproduced batik, while also working on the conservation of the damaged batiks. The instructors were Ibu Asti Suryo, a batik expert and head of exhibitions and preservation at the Danar Hadi Batik Museum, Solo, and Maria Lieke, a batik conservator and exhibition staff member from the Yogyakarta Batik Museum. Topics included basic preventive conservation principles based on traditional local wisdom and models by the Canadian Conservation Institute. The intensity of the museum’s lighting system was modified as well as some of the display mounts. Reproduction was carried out by a team of batik conservators from a group called Wastra Indonesia. After the course, as a parallel preventive conservation approach, a workshop was organized for school and college students that introduced the history and meaning of selected batiks. Reviving the practice of batik will be useful to individuals and institutions interested in this area, and sharing this knowledge will contribute to the preservation of ancient batik textiles in Indonesia.

Rosemarie A. Selm, Is that a wig you are wearing?

ABSTRACT : Bearskin is no exception to the common problem of hair loss over time, especially when subjected to non-ideal storage conditions, insects and extensive wear. Sometimes in the conservation profession it is possible to work around such losses. However, when there is very little hair left on a skin, it can be difficult to interpret a fur object. A nearly hairless 18th-century Grenadier’s bearskin hat from the Esterházy Collection in Austria was to be put on exhibition after conservation. The hat is a three-dimensional construction made from willow, straw, linen, wool fabric, various metals and leathers and with an outer covering of dyed black bearskin fur. After discussion with the head curator, the author’s suggestion to make a slip-on wig was accepted. The wig is (a) non-invasive to the original materials, (b) custom-made from appropriate material, (c) relatively easy to fit over the hat and (d) provides an accurate visual interpretation of the object. After insect identification, the substructure, skin, hair, leathers and fragmented wool were extensively cleaned. The red wool, pom-pom and brass plaque were removed. The wool was wet cleaned and stitched to a full support of colour-matched cotton flannel. All other elements were conserved in situ. A portion of previously processed brown bearskin was provided by a Jägermeister (professional hunter) in Austria. The fur needed to be dyed black but unfortunately very little time was available between delivery of the bearskin and the exhibition opening, which eliminated the possibility of professional dyeing at a tannery, by a furrier or any experimental dyeing in the workshop. A ‘trick of the trade’ (used by some Austrian taxidermists) was passed on to the author: ‘use commercial hair colour’! The fur was dyed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. A self-made water/paraffin oil emulsion was massaged into the flesh side of the skin to improve flexibility after drying. First, an experimental wig was made from fake-fur fabric and fitted onto the hat. Second, a cotton muslin pattern was made from the fake-fur wig, which was used as a flat pattern to cut and tailor the bearskin into a hand-sewn 3-D wig form. Once fitted onto the hat, the back seam was sewn together and the wig secured to the top edge with a few stitches (where possible using existing stitch holes) through the under-construction for extra security in transport. The conserved red wool panel and the armorial plaque were reattached.

 Abstracts of papers and posters published within the ‘Ethnographic Collections' section of the ICOM-CC Preprints of the 17th Triennial Meeting, ICOM-CC 17th Triennial Conference Preprints, Melbourne, 15–19 September 2014, ed. J. Bridgland. Paris: International Council of Museums.
All articles are accessible on the ICOM-CC Publications Online webpage.
*Author for correspondence.

 Holly Jones-Amin*, Mandy Nicholson, Shaun Ewen, A protocol for use and preservation of a new traditional possum-skin cloak used in University ceremonies.

ABSTRACT : Possum-skin cloaks are significant objects which, after a hiatus in their making, have had a resurgence. They symbolize a connectedness to Country, people and a vibrant living culture. A ceremonial university cloak was commissioned for use, but its conservation and storage were not considered. A protocol for use, storage and repair was developed, consulting the artist and university representatives at all stages of the protocol development. Repairs will be undertaken by the artist only.

Ellen Promise*, T. Rose Holdcraft, Daniel Kirby, Sven Haakanson, Identifying collagen-based materials: A cross-cultural collaboration.

ABSTRACT : All stakeholders in cultural heritage share interest in fabrication methods and material technology, but methods of analyzing organic materials, particularly proteins, have not been widely available at cultural institutions. Now this gap is being bridged, as the Straus Conservation Center has adapted peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) for the study of cultural materials and applied it to objects in the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University. This paper discusses PMF as practiced in a museum laboratory and describes how its use has benefited a collaborative study of Alaska Native objects.

Catherine Ann Smith*, Bronwyn Jane Lowe, Andrew McNoughton, Micro-computed tomography for plant identification in artefacts.

ABSTRACT : In New Zealand the identification of materials of construction of Māori textiles has important cultural and legal connotations. However, the identification of aged and processed plant material in artefacts is difficult, compounded by the need for use of non-destructive analytical methods. This paper discusses the application, efficacy and implications of a new method that uses micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) together with an identification key as evaluative criteria for the identification of plant material in artefacts. Case studies using Māori textiles show how plant identification using micro-CT can aid in ascribing cultural context to artefacts with unknown provenance, and aid in rediscovery of cultural knowledge about plant use for artefact production.

Odile Madden*, Robyn Hodgkins, Susan Heald, Substituting SPME for noses in the detection and quantification of mothball vapors from textiles in the National Museum of the American Indian collection.

ABSTRACT : Naphthalene is a volatile solid that often has been used as a pesticide to treat artifacts, particularly ethnographic material, and natural history collections. Naphthalene residues pose an ongoing health risk in museums and to communities that receive contaminated artifacts through cultural repatriation. The Museum of the American Indian disposed of its supply of “moth flakes” in 1985, but noxious residues remain on collections. It has been demonstrated that naphthalene vapors become stronger in humid air, which increases the potential health risk. A method for quantifying naphthalene vapor concentrations using SPME-GC/FID is presented, and the relationship between naphthalene, water vapor, and textile fibers is explored as a step in the development of a treatment to remediate the pesticide residues.

Farideh Fekrsanati*, Tamahou Temara, Robert Gabel, Te Hono Ki Aotearoa: The link to New Zealand – Kaupapa Waka in the Netherlands.

ABSTRACT : In October 2010 representatives of the New Zealand Māori community entrusted two traditional canoes or waka to the long-term care of Rijksmuseum Volkenkunde and the Njord Royal Student Rowing Club in Leiden, the Netherlands. The project was conceived in partnership with Toi Māori Aotearoa, with the aim of making a waka available for use to Māori and non-Māori outside of New Zealand. Both waka have been in regular use since 2010. This paper explores the participatory framework on which the project was based, which involved a decision-making process that centered on Māori protocols and values. The potentials and challenges of such collaborative approaches are explored with a special emphasis on how this approach was taken up in the conservation processes involved and how working collaboratively in the care and maintenance of the waka has been essential to understanding the culture of waka.

Jeremy Uden*, Andrew Charlton, Kelly Domoney, Pesticide residues on the Cook-voyage collections at the Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford.

ABSTRACT : Eighteen objects from the Cook-voyage collections at the Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford, were analysed for selected pesticide residues, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), followed by analysis with a handheld x-ray fluorescence (HH-XRF) unit. The intention was to discover what pesticides had been used on the collections to better inform conservation decision making. The results showed that the collection had been treated with a range of organic and inorganic pesticides. The analytical methods applied proved to be complementary, with XRF used as an initial qualitative screen for the detection of elements found in inorganic pesticides, and ICP-MS and GC-MS providing data for elements in inorganic and targeted organic pesticides respectively. The results of the analytical methods could not be directly compared due to the large number of variables present in the methodology.

Ellen Pearlstein*, Melissa Hughs, Joy Mazurek, Kevin McGraw, Christel Pesme, Miguel Garcia-Garibay, Correlations between photochemical damage and UV fluorescence of feathers.

ABSTRACT : Ultraviolet-induced visible fluorescence is introduced for detecting photochemically induced degradation of feathers before detectable fading has occurred, and results link fluorescence changes to changes in keratin chemistry and pigment concentration. Analysis and collections review illustrate how past light exposure may be indicated through fluorescence changes. Ultraviolet fluorescence examination provides early evidence of photochemical change, before visible color change is detectable, and may inform preservation practices.

Nancy Odegaard*, Marilen Pool, Gina Watkinson, Woven Wonders: Revitalizing collections and community relationships.

ABSTRACT : The Woven Wonders project has provided increased access and preservation to a basketry collection of exceptional depth and breadth, encouraged revitalization of craft production, inspired new approaches to the condition assessment survey process, initiated new conservation treatment research techniques, and established bridges to new cultural relationships. The collections include ethnographic and archaeological objects from North America, especially from the American Southwest. Through combining resources with appropriate activities, new outcomes have been achieved. A visible storage vault and interpretive gallery highlight a conservation project that is viewed as a continuum rather than an endpoint and provides a process for ongoing exploration. This paper primarily focuses on basketry from the ethnology collections.

Martina Lázničková-Galetová*, Jozef Kaiser, Marie Sejnohová, Tomáš Zikmund, Analysis of the state of preservation, and determination of raw material of Palaeolithic mammoth ivory personal ornaments (Dolní Věstonice, Czech Republic) using Micro Computed Tomography.

ABSTRACT : This poster examines the utilization of non-destructive and non-invasive micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis to identify the raw materials used in the production of Paleolithic artifacts, assess their current state of conservation and devise a procedure for the treatment of artifacts in a problematic state of preservation. The raw materials and manufacturing techniques used in Paleolithic personal ornaments made from hard animal tissues, such as mammoth ivory, can only be identified through non-destructive analyses because these objects represent rare and unique cultural relics protected by the state. The preserved mammoth ivory objects from this period – both the mammoth tusks used as primary raw material and the artifacts themselves – are often in a very problematic state of preservation. In an unstable environment, anisotropic and hygroscopic mammoth ivory is naturally subject to delamination due to the morphological composition of the ivory. Artifacts which have undergone many taphonomic and post-excavation processes were examined. In the past, artifacts made from these materials were conserved using many procedures; however, records of previous conservation treatments were not preserved and only limited information was available on the conservation approach applied. Artifacts were thoroughly cleaned, often mended and exhibited. Their current form, which differs from their original form due to the modifications they have undergone, has typically been patterned after those found in publications. The objects discovered thus take on a second life. In order to analyze how they were manufactured, what their purpose was and how they may have been used in past societies, it is necessary to reconstruct the original form of the artifacts. For the visualization and subsequent assessment of the state of conservation of prehistoric artifacts, laboratory-based x-ray micro-CT was used. The micro-CT analysis of these samples was performed using a GE phoenix v|tome|x L240 tomographic station, equipped with a 240 kV/300 W high-power microfocus x-ray tube and a flat panel GE DXR detector array. The micro-CT scan was carried out at 70 kV and 180 μA acceleration voltage and x-ray tube current, respectively. The x-ray spectrum was modified by 0.1-mm-thick copper filter. The voxel resolution of obtained volume (depending on the object’s size) ranged from 18 to 12 μm. Samples were fixed on a carbon tube with parafilm (plastic paraffin film). The tomographic reconstruction was carried out using datos|x 2.0 3-D computed-tomography software. The 3-D and 2-D cross-section visualizations were performed with VG Studio MAX 2.2 software. This non-destructive and non-invasive technique made it possible to examine the surface as well as the internal structure and assess the state of conservation of personal ornaments from the Dolní Věstonice archaeological site. Moreover, the specific morphological characteristics of their internal structure allowed to determine the primary raw material of the artifacts, which is otherwise difficult to identify through non-destructive methods. Thus, it was possible to devise a procedure for the treatment of rare, specific artifacts in a problematic state of preservation.

Misa Tamura*, Jeremy Uden, Tactile memory reawakened: What evidence of use of a hunting quiver communicates about the Ainu delegation of Japan-British Exhibition in 1910.

ABSTRACT : At the 1910 Japan-British Exhibition, a hunting quiver was purchased by the Pitt Rivers Museum of Anthropology and World Archaeology at the University of Oxford. The purchase was made at the Ainu village exhibit, where a delegation of Ainu, the indigenous people of Hokkaido, Japan, lived on site for six months, representing Japan’s colonial subjects. The body and binding panels of the quiver are made of wood, with cherry bark binding and willow shavings wrapped around the body. A bear-skin pouch and shoulder strap are also attached. The willow shavings, called inau, are often used in Ainu cultural practice to represent a channel between spirits and people. Three similar quivers also obtained at this exhibition are currently in other UK collections. Postcards from the exhibition show members of the Ainu delegation carrying hunting quivers. Close examination of the object revealed wear and tear, and deposits potentially associated with use. A sooty black accretion covered the object. Peculiarly, the inau had two visually distinctive layers: a lower layer with the accretion present and a fresh, unmarked upper layer. Following consultation with the Historical Museum of Hokkaido, a hypothesis was formed that this accretion might be soot from the kitchen fire, above which the hunters often stored their hunting equipment. Japanese authorities imposed hunting bans on the Ainu in the mid-19th century, severely affecting their community. It is possible that hunting quivers were disused and stored for a long time, accumulating kitchen soot. In order to inform conservation options to either preserve or remove the accretion, a small sample was analysed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify: 1) fat content from cooking, and 2) soot from burning organic matter. The result was inconclusive as the suspected kitchen soot was layered with sulphatic, seemingly post-acquisition, industrial particulate matter. However, the kitchen soot hypothesis remains a strong possibility to consider in its conservation. Consequently, conservation treatment was kept to a minimum and carried out to facilitate access and handling. The reason for the quiver having the two layers of inau remains uncertain. However, it is possible that the delegate owning the quiver may have wrapped a new layer of inau over the older, darkened layer to renew its channel to the spirits, possibly to secure a safe journey to the UK. There are few written accounts that reflect the delegates’ personal voices. This object has the potential to animate their unwritten, tactile, personal experience of the events. The results thus far cannot be considered as conclusive in themselves, but with further investigation the information retrieved from this object can contribute to our understanding of Ainu history and cultural practice. Any such process of investigation would entail further consultation with Ainu craftsmen and scholars in Japan. Similar objects obtained from the exhibition at the same time would offer a base for comparative study, both visually and materially. The object can not only be attributed to named individuals, but the layers of additions and evidence of use communicate the Ainu delegates’ engagement with the object and their historical experience.

Amanda C.A. Cordeiro*, Luiza A.C. Souza, Renata Peters, Stitching values: A preservation proposal for the Bolivian costumes used in the Corpus Christi and Virgin of Guadalupe festivals in the Colonial Andes.

ABSTRACT : This poster discusses colonial costumes associated with indigenous dance performances in the region of Alto Peru (now Bolivia) and similar costumes made and still used in the present. These colonial costumes are used in Corpus Christi and Virgin of Guadalupe festivals. They are dated to the beginning of the 19th century and belong to the Museo Juan Bautista Ambrosetti in Buenos Aires, Argentina. These complex garments were made from materials such as silver, wool, cotton, wood, and leather. They have experienced a process of cultural continuity in small villages near the city of Sucre, in Bolivia, where they are still in use today. However, more recently produced garments are made with modern materials such as flattened cans of baby formula and synthetic fabrics. In addition, they have different meanings from those found in the museum, and are used in the Baile las Liberias dance during the August and September feasts to honor various saints and the Pachamama. Because they are an example of traditions that have survived outside their original context, when drawing up a conservation proposal both their original and current contexts were considered, as well as their biographies. The preservation of these Bolivian colonial costumes entails understanding their religious, social, cultural, political, and economic connotations in specific moments of colonial and Andean indigenous cultures. Therefore, it was first necessary to reveal the values and interests of the groups that give continuity to this cultural expression, besides documenting in great detail the materials, manufacturing techniques, and condition of the costumes in Buenos Aires. There was also the need to: make iconographic and technological comparisons between recent and old productions; document dances that are performed today; map interest groups related to the two types of costumes; and identify and analyze values connected to different interest groups, such as representatives from the Jalq’a community, the museum in Buenos Aires, the Bolivian government, dancers, and Bolivian community tourist centers. In addition, it was necessary to predict and analyze the potential impact of this study on the groups associated with the garments. The need for technical studies on Bolivian heritage is well known. Although these costumes are located in another country, their study and documentation may highlight socio-cultural values associated with similar costumes, and give more visibility to Baile las Liberias. This adds value to these costumes and others like them, and may benefit cultural, social, and economic development at the national and local levels. More importantly, this research can help the preservation of Bolivian heritage. Finally, it shows that the role of conservators encompasses knowing the values related to cultural heritage, but also the possible impact of their choices.

Heike Winkelbauer*, Chanel Clarke, Nigel Borell, Sue Cooper, Conserving the Meeting House Hotunui at Auckland War Memorial Museum: A Community Engagement Approach.
Abstract missing

 Abstracts of the papers and posters published within the ‘Ethnographic Collections' section of the ICOM-CC Preprints of the 16th Triennial Meeting, Lisbon (Portugal), 19-23 September 2011, ed. J. Bridgland. Paris: International Council of Museums, 2011.
All articles are accessible on the ICOM-CC Publications Online webpage.
*Author for correspondence.

 Ellen Pearlstein*, Renée Riedler, Molly Gleeson, Jim Druzik, Christel Pesme, A collaborative study of Native California featherwork.

ABSTRACT : In a study which integrates information from native cultural experts, ornithologists, color scientists and conservators, the examination of Native American featherwork is enhanced through increased understanding of feather selection, technical methods, and conditions observed on regalia and baskets from California. Informed by these collaborators, the authors developed a conservation documentation format that permits controlled descriptions of feathers to aid conservators in feather identification and in discrimination between bird lifecycle damage, cultural use, and deterioration associated with display. Current plans to move this form and glossaries online into an open resource are designed to enrich the study and preservation of feathers in collections. Further developments include assessing lighting damage using advanced color measurement methods, such as templates allowing repeatable measurements and a simplified form of Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (to measure peak spectral reflectance at different feather orientations and lighting angles), which will improve display lighting guidelines for feathers with different colorant sources.

Bruce Ford*, Nicola Smith, Determining light exposure conditions for Australian Indigenous material culture at the National Museum of Australia using microfade testing and a structured estimate of probable future display frequency.

ABSTRACT : This paper reports the results of the National Museum of Australia’s use of a Newport Oriel© microfade tester (O-MFT) to evaluate the lightfastness of a wide range of historical and contemporary Australian aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander artefacts, works of art and documentary material. This information, together with an assessment of which objects are most likely to be in continuous or frequent demand for display, and therefore most exposed to light in the long term, is used by the museum to limit light damage to acceptable levels. Preserving the forms and colours of objects used in daily life and ceremony is important to imagining the past, and especially so to indigenous people who continue to maintain artistic and craft traditions, and find inspiration in their past through new forms of expression.

Anne Lisbeth Schmidt*, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Enrico Cappellini, Jesper Velgaard Olsen, Identification of Animal Species in Skin Clothing from Museum Collections.

ABSTRACT : Since the birth of museums, the identification of the materials from which objects are made has been a highly respected academic discipline, often yielding significant quantities of information about object provenance, traditional use of special materials, access to commodities, trade, hunting tradition, etc. This paper introduces methods that enable identification of animal sources in prehistoric and historic skin clothing, using the tools of microscopy, genetic profiling, and mass spectrometry-based protein sequencing of subsamples of hair and skin.

Helen Wilson*, Pippa Cruickshank, Marei Hacke, Rebecca Stacey, Chris Carr, Vincent Daniels, Muriel Rigout, Investigation of non-aqueous remedial treatments for iron-tannate dyed textiles.

ABSTRACT : Iron-tannate dyes accelerate the degradation of the substrates they colour, severely decreasing the material’s lifetime. This paper presents preliminary results focusing on the development of non-aqueous remedial conservation treatment(s) to inhibit degradation. A range of antioxidants and deacidifiers in organic solvent applied to model iron-tannate dyed cotton and silk fabrics and the effects of the treatments on accelerated ageing of the cotton have been evaluated using spectrophotometry and handling tests. The results show that there is little correlation between colour and strength of the samples after ageing. Strength-retention is considered of greater importance than colour-retention. The protective agents showing most potential are Tinuvin 292, Tinuvin 144, alpha-tocopherol, phytic acid, etidronic acid and magnesium ethoxide. Completion of the cotton and silk analyses will identify the most promising treatments for further investigation.

Andrea Fischer*, Margarete Eska, Joining Broken Wax Fragments: Testing Tensile Strength of Adhesives on Fragile and Non-polar Substrates.

ABSTRACT : The conservation challenges presented by Mexican folk art wax figures led to a systematic investigation and evaluation of various adhesives. Wax is a fragile material and its non-polar character affects the choice of conservation materials. Non-polar adhesives, such as wax-based adhesives, have the appropriate properties (i.e. hardness, flexibility) and a similar non-polar nature to the original substance. However, they cannot be applied without the risk of damage to the wax. Therefore, conservators today use natural and synthetic polymers in solvents which do not cause wax swelling. This solution is not perfect, since a good wettability of the wax surface is regarded as essential for the development of sufficient bond strength. In a series of tests, a selection of adhesive materials was tested with particular regard to their application properties, as well as their adhesive strength.

Clare Ward*, Joanne Dyer, Nicole Rode, Marei Hacke, Yvonne Shashoua, Reassessment of anoxic storage of ethnographic rubber objects in the British Museum collections.

ABTRACT : This paper revisits the 1991-1995 British Museum field trial on anoxic storage, where 23 registered ethnographic rubber objects were enclosed in oxygen barrier film Cryovac BDF- 200 with sachets of the oxygen absorbent Ageless Z. A unique opportunity for study was presented since most of the enclosures have remained sealed since 1995. Techniques such as solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM) together with visual assessments were employed in assessing both condition of the objects and effectiveness of anoxic storage methodology. Anoxic storage is of increasing interest to those caring for modern/ethnographic col- lections. This study has helped to establish that, despite concerns for the long-term effectiveness and impact of prolonged storage under oxygen-depleted conditions, it is an effective and convenient means of slowing the deterioration of rubber artefacts in museum collections.

Farideh Fekrsanati*, Graeme Scott, Margrit Reuss, Retno Sulistianingsih, Sharing Knowledge.

ABSTRACT : The National Museum of Indonesia in Jakarta (MNI) and the National Museum of Ethnology in Leiden, The Netherlands (MV) have completed two three-year projects to transfer skills and knowledge between the staff of the two museums and to study their joint collection history. Two exhibitions were created and the institutions cooperated on the reinstallation of the permanent exhibitions at the MNI. The conservation departments worked together, packing loans, preparing and mounting objects and reviewing preventive conservation strategies. Approaches to preventive conservation, treatment and storage were adapted to local circumstances.

Heather Richardson*, Taking the ancestors on a visit: The role of conservators in reconnecting a collection of historic Blackfoot shirts with the community.

ABSTRACT : In March 2010 five historic Blackfoot hide shirts held by the Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford, travelled to Alberta, Canada, for the first time in 170 years. The visit included handling workshops with approximately 500 Blackfoot people. In addition, the exhibition ‘Kaahsinnooniksi Ao’toksisawooyawa Our ancestors have come to visit: reconnections with historic Blackfoot shirts’ was presented in two museum venues in Alberta, before the shirts returned to the UK in September 2010. This paper discusses the conservator’s role throughout this project, including the planning and consultation process, conservation treatments, packing for travel, facilitating handling workshops and installation of the exhibitions. Implications of working internationally within the confines of a UK museum loan policy are also discussed.

Catherine Smith*, Kahutoi Te Kanawa, Moira White, The preservation of Maori textiles: collaboration, research and cultural meaning.

ABSTRACT : Māori artefacts discovered in 1895 at Puketoi Station, Otago, South Island New Zealand, were re-examined using multiple methods to gather information of relevance and meaning to contemporary Māori culture. This paper discusses aspects of an interdisciplinary project including conservation treatment, plant material identification and examination of textile structure and details of cultural information thus uncovered. One artefact, the pukoro kete, or tutu-berry bag, is used as a case study to illustrate how knowledge uncovered about past material culture in collaboration with traditional owners can influence contemporary cultural practice and aid in affirmation of distinctive cultural identity.

Kate Jackson*, Heather Richardson, The Conservation of a gut sail from Hudson Strait.

ABSTRACT : The poster discusses the conservation of an early and rare Umiak (woman’s boat) gut skin sail from Hudson Strait collected in 1824. Accessioned into the Pitt Rivers Museum collection in 1886, the sail had remained unlocated until recently. Found tightly folded and wrapped in brown paper the sail has never before been accessible for research, display or conservation. The poster covers the history, condition and unique treatment approach required due to the fragility of the gut skin and the need for ongoing research access. Research into materials and treatments from previous work with gut skin at the Pitt Rivers, communications with peers specialising in gut skin in a number of international institutions and past publications will be remarked on. The challenging storage solution for such a large vulnerable artefact allowing for ease of future access whilst complying with the museum store space constraints will also be discussed.

Jeremy Uden*, Heather Richardson, The Conservation of a Tahitian Mourner's Costume.

ABSTRACT : A Tahitian Mourner’s costume, collected on James Cook’s Second Voyage (1772-1775) has been on display at the Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford, almost continuously since the museum opened in 1884. It is one of only five or six virtually complete costumes in the world. Made from a variety of materials, including barkcloth, pearlshell, Pandanus leaf and feathers with a number of different components, the conservation and re-mounting of the costume presented a challenge. When the costume was taken off of its old mount, a ‘lost’ Cook collection object, a hair headdress from Tahiti hidden under the bindings of the barkcloth cape, was revealed. The component parts have been documented and old conservation repairs removed where necessary. After treatment a mount was designed and constructed to support each element and more accurately represent the costume as it was worn.

Articles published within the 'Ethnographic Collections' section of the ICOM-CC Preprints of the 15th Triennial Meeting, Delhi (India), 22-26 September 2008, Vol. I, James & James, 2008:

Tharron Bloomfield, Pupura te mahara – Preserving the memory: Working with Mäori commmunities on preservation projects in Aotearoa / New Zealand.

ABSTRACT: This paper is from the perspective of a Māori conservator from New Zealand who works with Māori communities. It discusses case studies and identifies specific risks to Māori collections in New Zealand. The National Preservation Office (NPO) established the position of Maori Preservation Officer to provide advice and assistance to iwi (tribes), hapu (sub-tribes) and whanau (families). The Māori Preservation Officer’s role is to empower Maori communities to preserve their material for themselves. This is done through providing advice, training and practical assistance. Conservators are responsible for the care of their collections but must also take responsibility to provide guidance to communities when they are asked to. The challenge is how to effectively collaborate with communities. The NPO is one example of an institution that successfully collaborates with communities on a national level.

Renata Peters, The Brave New World of Conservation.

ABSTRACT: The dynamics of control over cultural material held by museums and related institutions in the western world have undergone significant changes in the last 20 years. This relates mainly to the inclusion of non-professional groups in decision-making processes traditionally restricted to museum professionals. The discipline of conservation is now considered a social as well as a technical and scientific process; every conservation action may involve complex negotiations where condition of the material fabric of objects is only one of many factors in play. This socially, politically and economically aware approach is already recognised as placing conservators in complex positions. This paper will address reasons for and implications of these circumstances by looking at some aspects of how the conservation discipline is perceived, understood and practiced in the contemporary western world.

Monique Pullan & Alexandra Baldwin, The Evolution of a Treatment Strategy for an Akali Sikh Turban.

ABSTRACT: An unusual nineteenth-century Akali Sikh war turban from the collections of the British Museum shows severe deterioration of black dyed cotton textile and corrosion of metal weapons. A treatment strategy was developed in a collaborative project between textiles and metals conservators. Laser cleaning is suggested as a promising method for treating the metal. Various de-acidification and consolidation methods have been considered for treating the textile. The appropriateness of conserving extremely degraded objects is questioned. The possibility of deconstructing the object for treatment and subsequent storage or display is considered. The proposal concludes by exploring the construction of a replica turban on which to mount the quoits, whilst developing buffered storage for the original turban. Members of the British Sikh community were consulted during the development of the proposals.

Anne MacKay, A string of beads unbroken: Continuity and collaboration in an exhibition of Iroquois beadwork.

ABSTRACT: This paper describes the collaborative process that was undertaken in the production of an exhibition of Iroquois beadwork entitled Across Borders: Beadwork in Iroquois Life. This collaboration brought together contributions from Aboriginal curators, beadworkers and communities, as well as academics and staff from Canadian and American museums. It examines the context in which the exhibition was produced, the planning process, the content and the travel of the exhibition and outlines how the treatment and display options available to conservation were influenced by its collaborative nature.

Vinod Daniel, Emily Waterman, Paul Monaghan & Leslie Christidis, Australian Museum-Pacific Island Museums and Communities: A partnership approach.

ABSTRACT: This paper presents an exciting approach being undertaken by the Australian Museum in safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage. The Museum as a premier natural history and anthropological institution is taking a leadership role that fits in well with the spirit of the UNESCO Intangible Heritage Convention (2003) by providing access to its collection and in the process collecting and safeguarding intangible cultural heritage. This has benefits for both the Museum and Pacific creator communities. Through these initiatives to “Unlock Collections”. The Museum is able to gather intangible knowledge that enriches its collections while the Pacific creator communities are able to revive traditional practices and designs as well as recreate artefacts through access to these collections. The paper will also highlight the long term ongoing relationships between the Australian Museum and Pacific communities which provide a sustainable basis for these initiatives.

Janice Criswell, Molly Gleeson, Samantha Springer & Teri Rofkar, Beyond Cultural Sensitivity and Toward Cultural Centeredness: Insights into the Preservation of Alaskan Spruce Root Basketry.

ABSTRACT: This paper presents a project carried out in Juneau and Sitka, Alaska during the summer of 2007 between conservators and Native Alaskan weavers. The insights obtained by the weavers and conservators are presented in their own words in an attempt to move ethnographic conservation beyond cultural sensitivity towards cultural centeredness. The weavers share their backgrounds, relationships with the baskets in the museums, experiences working with conservators, and perspectives on the preservation of baskets. The conservators discuss how working with native weavers impacted their understanding and knowledge of spruce root baskets.

Philippe Bruguière, Jean-Philippe Echard, Pascaline Haegele, Sandie Le Conte & Stéphane Vaiedelich, Towards better conservation: a scientific examination of musical instruments from the princely courts of North India.

ABSTRACT: The Musée de la musique in Paris includes within its ethnographic collections some ancient musical instruments from India. Scientific investigations have been undertaken on these little-known and rare objects. A major temporary exhibition dedicated in 2003 to the musical heritage of North India, displayed precious manuscripts and paintings along with a hundred-odd musical instruments lent by international institutions. Non-destructive observations and analyses enriched previous studies of the decorated motifs and the acoustic properties of these objects. Microscopic examinations and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry allowed to underscore common features of the layer structures of the painted ornamentation and to obtain data on the inorganic pigments and precious metals used in similar painting techniques. The measurement of the Helmholtz resonance frequency of gourd resonators has revealed that traditional makers were aware of their acoustic response and highly vigilant in their selection.

Mark Sandy & Louise Bacon, A tensile testing method for monocotyledon leaves with parallel venation.

ABSTRACT: Many ethnographic artifacts in collections incorporate monocotyledon leaves. Monocotyledon leaves have parallel venation in which fibres run parallel to the long axis of the leaf. These leaves typically have high tensile strength parallel to their long axis. These plant materials have been the subject of relatively little investigation by conservation scientists. This paper discusses a method developed for applying tensile testing to monocotyledon leaves which draws on practical methods and theoretical concepts used in biomechanical research. The results of this method applied to the material raffia are discussed. This material, derived from the leaflets of Raphia palm, frequently becomes brittle and fragile on ageing.

Nancy Odegaard & Christopher White, Preliminary Patterns of Adhesive Use in Prehistoric and Modern Repairs of Southwestern Pottery in the United States.

ABSTRACT: The collection of whole ceramic vessels at the Arizona State Museum (ASM) spans nearly 2000 years and encompasses all the major cultures and historical periods of the Southwestern United States. A survey including the examination of adhesives and residues was undertaken and has resulted in valuable information about the conservation and repair history of the vessels. By using visible examination, chemical spot testing, UV autofluorescence, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) distinctive patterns of adhesive use have revealed how cultural groups, archaeologists, and conservators have used adhesives and repair techniques over time. The survey has also provided conservators with valuable insight into the efficacy of past repairs. Assessing the results will allow conservators to develop treatment strategies and prioritize conservation resources according to the needs of the collection. The opportunity to reconstruct early repair practices provides the museum conservators and curators with a valuable tool to evaluate, protect, and study this important collection.

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Articles published within the 'Ethnographic Collections' section of the ICOM-CC Preprints of the 14th Triennial Meeting, The Hague, 12-16 September 2005, Vol. I, James & James, 2005:

Mônica Lima de Carvalho, Kuikuro and Karajà techniques for gathering, processing, and using plant materials, pp. 83-88.

ABSTRACT: A comparative and contrastive analysis of construction methods and the technology of Kuikuro and Karajà ethnographic artifacts is presented. The work focuses on techniques of harvest and use of plant materials in the production of ethnographic objects, with special attention to weaving and basketry construction. The data discussed in the paper were gathered in fieldwork sessions with the Kuikuro people of the Xingu National Park and the Karajà people of Goiàs. The understanding of plant material technology gained by this comparison has largely aided the conservation of artifacts of the Museu Antropològico (Goiânia, Brazil) collection and, it is hoped, will serve as a contribution to the field, because it provides a broader understanding of the technology involved in the construction of these cultural artifacts.

Jessica S. Johnson, Susan Heald and Lauren Chang, Case studies in pesticide identification at the National Museum of the American Indian, pp. 89-95.

ABSTRACT: The Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI), like most museums with older collections, is dealing with a legacy of past pesticide application that has left these collections contaminated. NMAI, along with several institutions and individuals, has recently been involved in several projects to develop resources and techniques for identification of the pesticides. The work at NMAI has focused on developing methodologies and informaton resources that are as useful to tribes as we can make them. The goal is to provide information that allows people to make informed decisions so that the health and safety of individuals is not threatened when objects are returened to the community.

Marian A. Kaminitz, Robert Kentta and David Moses Bridges, First person voice: Native communities and conservation consultations at the National Museum of the American Indian, pp. 96-102.

ABSTRACT: Conservation consultations with Native peoples produce more valuable results for conservation treatment work than when conservators work with secondary sources. The conservation staff at the National Msueum of the American Indian have been consulting with Native peoples through much of the museum's 16 year history. The impact for Native communities is reported from the perspective of co-authors Kentta and Bridges.

Angie Liow, Alvin Tee and Timothy S. Hayes, A study of the materials and techniques of two Dayak longhouse models, pp. 103-109.

ABSTRACT: This paper presents the findings of a recently completed research projet that studied the materials and techniques used in the construction of a collection of Southeast Asian house models. A comparative study of tropical plant fibres determined whether the models were constructed of similar materials to the buildings they represent. Each category of plant fibre was evaluated for its botanical features, material properties and characteristic forms of deterioration. Two of the largest models are examined in this paper for their material composition, structural condition and conservation treatment.

Helene Tello, Achim Unger, Frank Gockel and Erich Jelen, Decontamination of ethnological objects with supercritical carbon dioxide, pp. 110-119.

ABSTRACT: In the past, ethnological objects were extensively treated with highly toxic arsenic and mercury compounds as well as chlorine-containing pesticides. As a consequence it is now very difficult to handle, store, exhibit and conserve such objects. This paper describes the effect of decontamination with carbon dioxide above its critical point (+31 degrees Celsius and 74 bar). The decontamination rate for mercury, DDT and lindane is very high. Arsenic and PCP can be removed to a lower extent. Materials with oily and fatty components are sensitive to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide.

Désirée C. J. Wisse, Agnes W. Brokerhof and Tatja Scholte, Decisions on the restoration ofa Trobriand yam storehouse: the 'Decision Making Model for the Conservation and Restoration of Modern Art' applied to an ethnographic object, pp. 120-126.

ABSTRACT: In this paper the application of a decision-making model is described for the conservation of an ethnographic object: a Trobriand yam storehouse kept in storage at the Wereldmuseum Rotterdam. The process leading to advice for treatment based on the meaning and the condition of the object, and the applicability of the model, are discussed. The paper concludes with specific remarks on the actual restoration in progress and general remarks on the meaning of ethographic objects and the ethics of their conservation.

 Poster submissions published within the same publication:

M. Klaus, J. Plitnikas, R. Norton, T. Almazan and S. Coleman, Preliminary Results from a Survey for Residual Arsenic on the North American Ethnographic Collections at The Field Museum, Chicago, p. 127.

 

Bella Zurcher, Conservation of Marind-anim 'dema' costumes, p. 127.

 

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